HPV/p16 Analyte ControlDR
The HPV/p16 Analyte ControlDR contains four cell lines that demonstrate a full dynamic range of expression for high risk human papilomavirus types 16 and 18: negative, low, medium and high. The same cell lines also demonstrate high homogenous, high heterogenous and negative expression of p16. Ideal for use as a same slide control for HPV ISH and p16 IHC where maximum sensitivity is required.
Human Papillomavirus or HPV is a group of more than 150 related viruses, over 40 of which can be transmitted through direct skin-to-skin contact during vaginal, anal and oral sex. High-risk HPV infection accounts for approximately 5% of all cancers globally. That said, most HPV infections occur without symptoms and regress within 2 years without causing cancer. Some HPV infections, however, persist and can progress to cancer if left untreated. HPV, through expression of E6 and E7, has a negative impact by binding to the p53 and retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathways, and as such, integration of the virus typically leads to an overexpression of p16ink4A.
Virtually all cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV infection, with HPV 16 and 18 detected in 70%. HPV 16 is responsible for around 85% of anal cancers and HPV 16 and 18 account for approximately 50% of vaginal, vulval and penile cancers. Within the last 20 years, the incidence of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer has increased, particularly among men. HPV 16 has been identified in around 50% of oropharyngeal cancers in the US. Indeed it has been estimated that, by 2020, HPV will cause more oropharyngeal cancers than cervical cancers in the US.
- Cells are fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and paraffin wax embedded.
- Pre-cut sections are cut at 4µm, mounted on positively charged slides and baked overnight at 37°C.
- Cell microarrays (CMA) contain cores that are 2mm in diameter and 3-3.5mm in length. It is possible to obtain over 300-400 sections depending on thickness.